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23_1_Bakov H. I.

Adyghe Int. Sci. J. Vol. 23. No 1. P. 64-73

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  Original Article

On the problem of the general Adyghe literary language

Hangeri Ilyasovich Bakov
Chief Researcher of the Sector of Kabardino-Circassian Literature of the Institute for Humanitarian Studies of the Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (18 Pushkin St., Nalchik, 360051, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Russian Federation), Doctor of Philology, Professor, Academician of Al AS, Honored Scientist of the KChR, Honored Scientist of the KBR, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, laureate of the International Kandurov Prize, member of the Union of Writers of the Russian Federation, ORCID:,

Abstract. In the introductory part of the article, arguments arc given confirming the relevance of the topic, on which there are very few scientific developments, although it worries all the Adyghes living both in their historical homeland in the KBR, AR, KChR, and in foreign diasporas. The article mainly uses the comparative-historical method of research. The historical facts that led to the disunity of the Adygs – the Adyghes and Kabardians, who created a literary language based on different dialects, are being clarified. To a certain extent, materials on the history of the Adyghe and Kabardino-Circassian languages were used, as well as variants of alphabets created on different graphic bases, the appearance of which was influenced by political and other reasons. As noted in the article, the literary language has a special meaning in Nalchik for the Circassians, who turned out to be disunited and living in the three republics of Russia and in many foreign countries, being in a foreign cultural environment. Representatives of the Circassians realized in the 1920s the need to create a single alphabet, but this was prevented by historical and political circumstances, which will be discussed in this study. Now many advocate the creation of a single literary language, but few offer real ways to achieve this noble goal. In the 1990s, experts considered this problem almost insoluble and it was postponed indefinitely. The author of the article invites to a discussion on this topic and offers some preliminary solutions that can budge an important problem for the people.

Keywords: literary language, dialects, diaspora, consolidation, method, graphic base
Acknowledgments: the author arc thankful to the anonymous reviewer for his valuable remakes.

For citation. Bakov H. I. On the problem of the general Adyghe literary language. Adyghe hit. Sei.
J. 2023. Vol. 23, No. 1. P. 64-73. DOI:;

The author has read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Submitted 27.02.2023; approved after reviewing 10.03.2023; aeeepted for publication 13.03.2023

                                                                                                                                                  © Bakov H. I., 2023


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